How does Penicillin Kill Bacteria – Penicillin is a widely used antibiotic prescribed to treat staphylococci and streptococci bacterial infections. Penicillin belongs to the family of antibiotics, the beta-lactam parts whose use a similar mechanism of action to inhibit the bacterial increase of the cell that eventually kills the bacteria.
The cells of the Bacteria are surrounded by a protective envelope called the cell wall. One of the primary components of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan, a structural macromolecule with a reticular composition that provides rigidity and support to the outer cell wall. To form the cell wall, a single peptidoglycan chain is crosslinked to other peptidoglycan chains with the action of the enzyme DD-transpeptidase (also called a penicillin protein-binding PBP). In a bacterial life cycle, the cell wall (and thus the peptidoglycan reticulations) is continuously remodeled to accommodate for the repeated cycles of cell increase and replication.
How does Penicillin Kill Bacteria
Penicillins and other antibiotics in the beta-lactam family contain a four-membered ring characteristic of beta-lactam. Penicillin kills bacteria by binding from the beta-lactam ring to DD-transpeptidase, inhibiting their interconnection activity and preventing the reformation of the cell wall. Without a cell wall, a bacterial cell is vulnerable to outside water and molecular pressures and dies quickly. Since human cells do not contain a cell wall, the results of treatment of penicillin in bacterial cell death without affecting human cells.
Gram-positive bacteria have thick cell membranes containing levels of peptidoglycan, while gram-negative bacteria are characterized by thinner cell membranes with low levels of peptidoglycan. The cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a layer (LPS) of lipopolysaccharide that the antibiotic seat in the cell. Therefore, penicillin is the most effective against gram-positive bacteria where the activity of DD-transpeptidase is highest.
Bacteria reproduce rapidly and are genetic mutations prone to grow in the presence of environmental pressures, such as an antibiotic. Over time, genetic mutations that provide a survival benefit may arise in the bacterial population, allowing bacteria to continue to grow and multiply in the presence of the antibiotic. This leads to the creation of a resistant deformation, which can be killed only with the use of the option, stronger antibiotics. The potential for antibiotic resistance increases with repeated or incorrect use of an antibiotic. Bacterial deformations can become resistant to more than one antibiotic, leading to the creation of “superbugs” that are extremely difficult to treat medically.
Bacteria generate antibiotic resistance through several mechanisms. Some bacteria can become resistant to penicillin by producing beta-lactamase, a bacterial enzyme that destroys the beta-lactam ring of penicillin and makes it ineffective. A common example is Staphylococcus Aureus, which produces levels of beta-lactamase and causes infections in the blood, skin, or lungs. Most deformations of Staphylococcus AureusThey are now resistant to penicillin. In the reaction, scientists have developed a synthesized form of penicillin that is resistant to beta-lactamase, called penicillin-resistant penicillins or second-generation penicillins. These include dicloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, and methicillin. Soon after the development, the researchers quickly determined methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus Aureus, called Methicillin-Staphylococcus Aureus.resistant (MRSA). Use of MRSA a second resistance method of overcoming methicillin-that is, upregulating a lower-affinity form of the penicillin-binding protein that does not bind the antibiotic and whose activity is not inhibited. To date, MRSA has demonstrated the combined resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics and is an extremely serious health risk.
Threat to Public Health
In 2014, the World Health Organization noted that antibiotic resistance is a global threat to public health. In areas around the world, disease-causing bacteria are already resistant to all the initial forms of the antibiotic and are rapidly developing mechanisms of resistance to the treatments of last resort. Some bacteria resistant to antibiotics are highly contagious and can spread rapidly in a family or community, creating a serious public health risk. As the bacteria continue to gain resistance to some of the strongest antibiotics available, the pharmaceutical development of new antibiotic agents is on the decline. This is due to several reasons, including lower profitability due to short treatment cycles